Typical Microflora Isolated from Kefir Grains Divided into Four Genus groups


Lb. acidophilus
Lb. brevis
Lb. casei
Lb. casei subsp. rhamnosus
Lb. casei subsp. pseudoplantarum
Lb. paracasei subsp. paracasei
Lb. cellobiosus
Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus
Lb. delbrueckii subsp. lactis
Lb. fructivorans
Lb. helveticus subsp. lactis
Lb. hilgardii
Lb. kefiri
Lb. kefiranofaciens
Lb. kefirgranum sp. nov *
Lb. parakefir sp. nov *
Lb. lactis
Lb. plantarum


Lactococci lactis subsp. lactis
Lc. lactis var. diacetylactis
Lc. lactis subsp. cremoris
Streptococci salivarius subsp. thermophilus
S. lactis
Enterococcus durans
Leuconostoc cremoris
Leuc. mesenteroides


Candida kefir
C. pseudotropicalis
C. rancens
C. tenuis
Kluyveromyces lactis
Kluyveromyces marxianus var. marxianus
K. bulgaricus
K. fragilis / marxianus
Saccharomyces subsp. Torulopsis holmii
Saccharomyces lactis
S. carlsbergensis
S. unisporus
Debaryomyces hansenii **
Zygosaccharomyces rouxii **


Acetobacter aceti
A. rasens


Encyclopaedia of Food Science, Food Technology, and Nutrition [1993] [pp. 1804-1808] Edited by R. Macrae, R.K. Robinson, M.J. Sadler

   * International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology 44 (3) 435-439 [1994]

    ** T. Loretana, J.F Mosterta and B.C. Viljoen [2003] Microbial flora associated with South African household kefir. S. Afr. J. Sci. Vol. 99 No. 1/2

List of Bacterial Names with Standing in Nomenclature – Genus Lactobacillus


Units Count of Microbes in Gram Stained Kefir Grains

Bacilli [single cells, pair, chains] Streptococci [pair, chains] Yeast [single cells]

The Means Range

Bacilli 66, 62-69%
Streptococci 16, 11-12%
Yeast 18, 16-20% [10]